Chapter

Viral and Host Genetic Factors

Jennifer A. McCombe, Shaona Acharjee, M. John Gill and Christopher Power

in The Neurology of AIDS

Third edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195399349
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199965199 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0004
Viral and Host Genetic Factors

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  • Disorders of the Nervous System
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HIV-1 neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are extremely widespread, yet not all HIV-positive individuals develop HAND and there are significant differences in clinical presentation and severity among those who do. In this chapter, we discuss genetic factors in both the host and the virus that can play a role in, and can produce variations in the extent of, HIV neuropathogenesis. The presentation focuses on, and distinguishes among, host determinants, virus-encoded determinants, and clade-related determinants of neuropathogeneis. The neuropathogenic stages of neuroinvasion, neurotropism, and neurovirulence provide a framework for much of the discussion. In many cases, pathogenic factors are mediated through the interaction of toxic viral proteins and host inflammatory molecules. Non-genetic host factors, which can contribute to an individual's neurosusceptibility (such factors include age, immune status, medication compliance, hepatitis C status, illicit drug use, and nutritional status) are not discussed in this chapter.

Chapter.  21433 words. 

Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System ; Infectious Diseases

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