Linda Chang, Ute Feger and Thomas M. Ernst

in The Neurology of AIDS

Third edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195399349
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199965199 | DOI:

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  • Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Infectious Diseases


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Many neuroimaging studies have evaluated changes in brain structure and function in patients with HIV-associated brain disorders. Most of these were conducted to assess the neuroanatomical or neurophysiological substrates underlying the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The ultimate goal of these neuroimaging studies was to improve the understanding of common cognitive deficits in HIV patients, such as deficits in sustained attention, mental flexibility, motor function, speed of information processing, short-term and working memory, executive function, and verbal fluency. In this chapter, we review and discuss early neuroimaging studies using CT and other techniques that involve ionizing radiation, such as SPECT and PET. We also review functional MRI studies, specifically perfusion MRI and BOLD-fMRI, and MRS studies, in both HAND and HIV neuroasymptomatic individuals. We also propose future directions for the application of these techniques to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV-associated brain injury and for use in the monitoring of treatment.

Chapter.  25729 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System ; Infectious Diseases

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