Chapter

Clinical and Pathological Features of HIV-1 Encephalopathy in Children and Adolescents

Mark Mintz, Leroy R. Sharer and Lucy A. Civitello

in The Neurology of AIDS

Third edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195399349
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199965199 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0063
Clinical and Pathological Features of HIV-1 Encephalopathy in Children and Adolescents

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  • Disorders of the Nervous System
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With the advent of effective antiretroviral drugs administered to HIV-infected women, the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection has been dramatically reduced. However, there are many parts of the world where there is inadequate accessibility or compliance with protocols to disrupt perinatal HIV-1 infection, or there remains a prevalence of horizontal modes of infection, and thus, HIV-1 infection in children continues to be an important international public health crisis, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A defining clinical feature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), HIV-1-associated Progressive Encephalopathy (PE) can cause impairment of brain development and growth, leading to significant motor dysfunction, neurodevelopmental regression and neurocognitive impairment. From the direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection, as well as drug toxicities, the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS/PNS) of HIV-1 infection are also susceptible to stroke, seizures, opportunistic infections, CNS lymphomas, myelopathies, myopathies, neuropathies and neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropathological studies have led to a better understanding of the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and associated complications. Combination antiretroviral drug therapies are crucial in combating PE, and have led to a marked reduction in the incidence and prevalence of PE.

Chapter.  27153 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System ; Infectious Diseases

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