Chapter

Current Concepts in the Treatment of HIV Infection with Focus on Brain Disease

Susan Swindells and Uriel Sandkovsky

in The Neurology of AIDS

Third edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print December 2011 | ISBN: 9780195399349
Published online September 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199965199 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780195399349.003.0067
Current Concepts in the Treatment of HIV Infection with Focus on Brain Disease

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In recent years, guidelines for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) have evolved with a trend towards starting therapy at earlier stages of disease. ART is now recommended for all patients with CD4 counts of less than 350 cells/mm3. These guideline changes have been driven by the development of drug regimens that are simpler, more tolerable, and possessing of improved resistance profiles. HIV viremia of >100,000 copies/mL and a decline of more than 100 CD4 cells/ mm3 in one year are also considered when deciding to start therapy earlier. Patients with hepatitis B and C co-infections, those at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and/or those having HIV-associated nephropathy may also benefit from early initiation of therapy. Specialist expertise is recommended to assess the potential risks and benefits of specific decisions about the management of HIV diseases, preferably provided in the context of a multidisciplinary team.

Chapter.  12811 words. 

Subjects: Disorders of the Nervous System ; Infectious Diseases

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