Chapter

Strongyloidosis

T. J. Nolan, T. B. Nutman and G. A. Schad

in Oxford Textbook of Zoonoses

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198570028
Published online July 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199697823 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780198570028.003.0064

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Strongyloidosis

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Public Health and Epidemiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Epidemiology

GO

Show Summary Details

Preview

Strongyloidosis is an intestinal parasitism caused by the threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite, occurring in dogs, primates and man, is found throughout the moist tropics, as well as in temperate areas where poor sanitation or other factors facilitate the occurrence of faecally transmitted organisms. In some parts of the world, notably Africa and New Guinea, human infections caused by S. fülleborni have been reported. In Africa, the latter is primarily a parasite of primates, but in New Guinea, no animal host is known. S. stercoralis is unique among zoonotic nematodes, in that larvae passing in the faeces can give rise to a free-living generation of worms which, in turn, give rise to infective larvae. This life history alternative (i.e. heterogonic development) acts as an amplification mechanism, increasing the population of infective larvae in the external environment. The infective larvae are active skin penetrators; infection per os , while possible, is probably of limited importance. Because the parasitic female’s eggs hatch internally, a potential for autoinfection exists when precociously developing larvae attain infectivity while still in the host. This is another virtually unique feature of S. stercoralis infections in both its human and animal hosts. Autoinfection can occasionally escape control by the host, with massive re-penetration and larval migration. This can cause pulmonary or cerebro-spinal strongyloidosis as well as fulminant intestinal parasitism. Control of canine strongyloidosis has been achieved in kennels by strategic use of anthelmintics. Given the lack of epidemiological information community-based programs to control human strongyloidosis have not been attempted. The growing importance of human strongyloidosis depends upon the unique ability of S. stercoralis to replicate within its host and to behave as a potentially fatal opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised hosts, particularly in those receiving corticosteroids.

Chapter.  9300 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Epidemiology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.