Chapter

Molecular exercise physiology

Henning Wackerhage, Jonathon Smith and Darren Wisniewski

in Oxford Textbook of Children's Sport and Exercise Medicine

Third edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print April 2017 | ISBN: 9780198757672
Published online April 2017 | e-ISBN: 9780191817519 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780198757672.003.0031

Series: Oxford Textbook

Molecular exercise physiology

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Molecular exercise physiology is the study of exercise physiology using molecular biology methods. The development of differentiated cell types is regulated by transcription factors like the muscle-making MyoD that specifies cell type, while others regulate the development of muscle, tendons, and bones. Maternal nutrition and exercise commonly affect embryonic development through epigenetic mechanisms. Adaptation to exercise involves sensor proteins detecting exercise-related signals, the processing of signals by signalling proteins and networks, and the regulation of the actual adaptations by effector proteins. Many sport- and exercise-related traits depend on both common and rare DNA sequence variations, including the muscle mass-increasing myostatin (GDF8) loss-of-function and the haematocrit-increasing EPOR gain-of-function mutations. Additionally, common DNA sequence variations contribute to the inherited variability of development, body height, strength, and endurance. Finally, in addition to ethical concerns, current genetic performance tests only explain a fraction of the variation of sport and exercise-related traits.

Chapter.  11962 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine

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