Chapter

Malignant diseases of the urinary tract

Lih-Ming Wong and David Neal

in Oxford Textbook of Medicine

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print May 2010 | ISBN: 9780199204854
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199570973 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.2118_update_002

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Malignant diseases of the urinary tract

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Urological cancers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Their treatment frequently involves a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, with patients needing both local therapy to treat the primary tumour and systemic therapy to decrease the risk of metastatic relapse.

Bladder cancer usually arises from the transitional epithelium and typically presents with haematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, pelvic pain, or (metastatic disease) systemic symptoms. Most cases are sporadic and related to cigarette smoking. They are graded histologically as: 1 (low risk of future progression), 2, or 3 (high risk of progression/metastases), and staged according to the tumour–nodes–metastases (TNM) classification, with the most important issues being whether the tumour is muscle invasive (T2 or above) or localized to urothelium only (Ta), and whether there is metastatic disease....

Chapter.  10492 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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