Other routes of opioid administration

Giovambattista Zeppetella

in Opioids in Cancer Pain

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print November 2007 | ISBN: 9780199218806
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191739880 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Pain Management Library OPML P

Other routes of opioid administration

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  • Radiation Oncology
  • Pain Medicine


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The oral route is the commonest route of opioid administration. In some instances, clinical circumstances make a switch to an alternative route of administration desirable. Common alternative routes include oral transmucosal, rectal, inhaled and topical administration. The evidence base for alternatives to the oral route is often from case reports; the strongest evidence is for oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate in the management of breakthrough pain. There are few non-oral licensed preparations available and most use is off-label.

Chapter.  2687 words. 

Subjects: Radiation Oncology ; Pain Medicine

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