Chapter

Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management

Mark I. Johnson and Jan M. Bjordal

in Chronic Pain

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199230280
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199607020 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199230280.003.0009

Series: Oxford Pain Management Library

Non-pharmacological approaches to pain management

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• TENS, acupuncture and physiotherapy have a key role within multimodal management of chronic pain. Physiotherapy interventions include manipulation, mobilization, massage, exercise and low level laser therapy • Repeated treatment is required because effects are generally short-term, although they have low toxicity, are generally safe and can be used in combination with other interventions • Trained specialists are required to administer acupuncture and physiotherapy. TENS and exercise can be administered by the patient themselves • Systematic reviews have shown these treatments to be superior to non-treatment and to sham interventions, although the findings have been challenged due to methodological shortcomings • Head-to-head comparisons with other non-pharmacological treatments often show equivalence of effect so treatment choice is made on a case by case basis.

Chapter.  2744 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Clinical Medicine ; Pain Medicine

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