Thyroid disorders and bone disease

Moira S. Cheung, Apostolos I. Gogakos, J.H. Duncan Bassett and Graham R. Williams

in Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print July 2011 | ISBN: 9780199235292
Published online July 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199608232 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Thyroid disorders and bone disease

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Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) of 2.5 or more standard deviations below that of a young adult (T score ≤ −2.5). It is characterized by reduced bone mass, low BMD, deterioration of bone microarchitecture, and an increased susceptibility to fragility fracture. The prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis increases with age from 6% at 50 years of age to over 50% at age 80 and the lifetime incidence of fracture for a 50 year old in the UK is 40% for women and 13% for men. Osteoporosis is a worldwide public health burden that costs an estimated £1.7 billion in the UK, $15 billion in the USA, and £32 billion in Europe per annum (see Chapter 4.7).

Chapter.  8060 words. 

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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