Chapter

Clinical features, lifestyle management, and glycaemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus

David Matthews, Usha Ayyagari and Pamela Dyson

in Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199235292
Published online July 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199608232 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.1368

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Clinical features, lifestyle management, and glycaemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Type 2 diabetes—previously named ‘maturity-onset diabetes’ or ‘non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus’—was, in the past, generally diagnosed in individuals over the age of 40 years old, but, with the modern epidemic, is found in increasing numbers in younger people, including teenagers and children. It is strongly associated with overweight and obese individuals, and tends to run in families. This feature may be environmental, since being overweight also runs in families, but there are specific genes for obesity (1). Type 2 diabetes that occurs in younger individuals with a very strong family history of early-onset diabetes may be the autosomally dominant ‘maturity-onset diabetes of the young’ (MODY) (see Chapter 13.3.4).

In an environment where there is a pandemic of diabetes, one should maintain a very high level of suspicion of diabetes in those who are overweight—in the USA, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is running at 8% of the population, and, in South India and Sri Lanka, at up to 18% in urban communities (2).

Chapter.  4654 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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