Chapter

Endocrinology and alcohol

Margit G. Proescholdt and Marc Walter

in Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199235292
Published online July 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199608232 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.2254

Series: Oxford Textbooks

Endocrinology and alcohol

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Alcohol has widespread effects on multiple organs, including the endocrine organs, potentially impairing endocrine function and affecting the entire endocrine milieu. Endocrine impairment may be observed with acute alcohol ingestion, excessive chronic alcohol consumption, and during alcohol withdrawal. Whereas many effects of alcohol on the endocrine organs are reversible following cessation of alcohol consumption, some changes may extend into abstinence. Importantly, endocrine dysfunction observed in alcoholism, is no longer considered to simply result from hepatic failure or chronic malnutrition, but, at least partially, from direct, toxic actions of alcohol on the endocrine organs themselves. In addition, there is increasing evidence that the endocrine system itself may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of addictive behaviour.

Ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde directly affect cell membranes and influences intracellular metabolism. Indirect effects include stress, nausea, and vomiting during acute intoxication and withdrawal. Whereas the list of alcohol-induced endocrine dysfunction is long, scientific and epidemiological evidence is frequently controversial. Controversies may result from the highly heterogenic group of alcohol-dependent individuals regarding dose and duration of alcohol consumption, periods of abstinence, age, gender, nutritional status, cigarette smoking, use of other drugs, presence of other diseases, particularly liver disease, and the complexity of endocrine regulation in general.

Chapter.  4931 words. 

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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