Management of pain

Miriam Johnson, Karen Hogg, James Beattie and Max Watson

in Heart Failure

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print May 2012 | ISBN: 9780199299300
Published online July 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191740787 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Specialist Handbooks

Management of pain

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  • Palliative Medicine
  • Cardiovascular Medicine


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End stage heart failure may not be thought of as a painful condition and therefore is an under-recognised symptom. The pain may be cardiac in origin or due to the co-morbidities that many patients suffer. Untreated pain will further affect mobility thus aggravating other symptoms of breathlessness and fatigue made worse by cardio-respiratory conditioning and loss of skeletal muscle. The common causes of pain in heart failure can be divided into cardio-vascular, treatment-aggravated and non-cardiovascular causes

This chapter summarises management strategies for each category.

Chapter.  5166 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Palliative Medicine ; Cardiovascular Medicine

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