Chapter

HPV and genital cancer: the essential epidemiology

F Xavier Bosch, Silvia de Sanjosé and Xavier Castellsagué

in Vaccines for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199543458
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199607181 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199543458.003.0004

Series: Oxford Oncology Library

HPV and genital cancer: the essential epidemiology

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• In spite of screening efforts, cervical cancer remains the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In developed countries, it is the most common cancer in young women. • HPV DNA is detected on average in 10% of normal cytology and almost in 100% of cervical cancer specimens. • HPV 16 and 18 account for at least 70% of cancers worldwide. They both induce persistency and progression at a higher rate than other high-risk oncogenic types. • Human papilloma virus (HPV) transmission occurs largely during sexual intercourse with limited protection from condom use. Other factors influencing progression from HPV infection to advanced high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (HSIL) and cancer include smoking, long-term use of oral contraceptives, high parity, HIV infection, and immunosuppression. • HPV 16 and other high-risk types are responsible for a sizeable fraction of vulval (20%), vaginal (80%), penile (40%), and anal (90%) cancers. Research is ongoing for cancers of the oropharynx and oral cavity.

Chapter.  3839 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Oncology

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