Chapter

Diabetes and the eye

Edited by Paul M Dodson

in Diabetic Retinopathy

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199544967
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199607235 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199544967.003.0004

Series: Oxford Diabetes Library

Diabetes and the eye

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• Diabetes mellitus is still one of the commonest causes of blindness worldwide. • The ophthalmic complications of diabetes include diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, primary open angle and neovascular glaucoma, and cranial nerve palsies. • Retinovascular disease including retinal vein and artery occlusion and non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy are more common in diabetic subjects. • Diabetic retinopathy occurs in approximately 40% of diabetic subjects, with ethnic differences. • The primary abnormalities of diabetic retinopathy are capillary basement membrane thickening, such that it becomes porous, and capillary occlusion with resultant retinal ischaemia. • In type 1 diabetes diabetic retinopathy is almost invariable after 15 years of disease duration. In type 2 diabetes 20% have retinal signs at diagnosis of diabetes, rising to a prevalence of 60% after 15 years of known disease duration. • Major modifiable risk factors for diabetic retinopathy include poor glucose and blood pressure control and increasing lipid levels.

Chapter.  2671 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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