Pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy

Rebecca Leigh

in Diabetic Retinopathy

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199544967
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199607235 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Diabetes Library

Pre-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy

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• Pre-proliferative retinopathy precedes proliferative retinopathy (new vessel growth) and is therefore an indication that the eye will soon be affected byadvanced stages of retinopathy • Pre-proliferative retinopathy indicates chronic retinal ischaemia due to blocked capillaries and the clinical signs include • Multiple cotton wool spots • Venous beading and/or looping • Multiple deep round and blot haemorrhages • Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities. • New vessels arise on the optic disc (NVD) or on the retinal surface (NVE) due to retinal ischaemia and growth factors (VEGF and others). The new vessels help re-vascularize the hypoxic (oxygen-starved) tissue. • New vessels can easily rupture, leading to haemorrhage and severe visual loss.

Chapter.  2217 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Ophthalmology

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