Chapter

Clinical features, spirometry, and lung function

Farid Bazari, Trevor T. Hansel, Michael I. Polkey and Onn Min Kon

in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199549146
Published online May 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780199607273 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199549146.003.0003

Series: Oxford Respiratory Medicine Library

Clinical features, spirometry, and lung function

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• Major indicators for considering a diagnosis of COPD are a history of (1) progressive dyspnoea on exertion, (2) a chronic productive cough, and (3) a history of exposure to risk factors. • It is important to consider systemic features of COPD: including weight loss, muscle weakness, cor pulmonale, sleep abnormalities, and decreased exercise performance. • Co-morbidities are common in COPD patients: ischaemic heart disease, carcinoma of the bronchus, depression, metabolic syndrome, endocrine abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, hypogonadism), anaemia, and osteoporosis. • COPD is characterized by airflow obstruction with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of <0.7. • The FEV1 is a predictor of mortality in COPD and useful for monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. • Hyperinflation and air-trapping are indicated by a rise in the residual volume. • The gas transfer is reduced in emphysema because of destruction of the alveolar-capillary membrane. • Dynamic tests such as the 6-min walk distance can be used to assess response to therapy.

Chapter.  2903 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology

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