Classification and aetiology

David Levy

in Type 1 Diabetes

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199553211
Published online September 2011 | e-ISBN: 9780191740190 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Diabetes Library

Classification and aetiology

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• Type 1 diabetes is a common complex autoimmune condition especially prevalent in Caucasian white northern and southern populations. • Incidence is increasing rapidly, especially in the under 5 age group; cases are likely to double in northern countries between 2005 and 2020. • High-risk human leucocyte antigen haplotypes are carried by more than 90% of Type 1 patients; protective haplotypes also exist. • Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is frequent in older people with phenotypic features of Type 2 diabetes. It is an important diagnosis to make whenever possible at onset to raise awareness of the requirement for insulin treatment. • Tests for islet antibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet cell, and IA-2) can be valuable in the diagnosis of LADA, and are used to rapidly screen large high-risk populations. • Up to now, primary and secondary intervention trials have been mostly unsuccessful, but tertiary intervention in the period immediately following clinical diagnosis shows much more promise, and an international programme ( of clinical trials in newly-diagnosed patients (and studies of prevention in close relatives) is exploring new interventional agents.

Chapter.  4063 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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