Chapter

Physiology and pathology of calcium and magnesium transport

Yoshiro Suzuki, Marc Bürzle and Matthias A. Hediger

in The Spectrum of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print June 2010 | ISBN: 9780199559176
Published online November 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191753350 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199559176.003.022

Series: Oxford Clinical Nephrology Series

Physiology and pathology of calcium and magnesium transport

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Calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) are essential for innumerous functions in the body. Therefore the total body calcium and magnesium levels are finely regulated by the co-ordination of intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption and bone metabolism. In the intestine and kidney (i.e. distal convoluted tubules), the transcellular pathway plays a key role in regulating the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the apical entry channels (TRPV5/6 for calcium and TRPM6/7 for magnesium) are likely to be rate-limiting steps in this process. Both trpv5 and trpv6 knock-out mice exhibited calcium deficiency with decreased bone mineral density. Several mutations were found in the gene encoding TRPM6, as well as other genes (FXYD2, HNF1B, KCNA1, EGF) concerning the TRPM6-mediated transcellular Mg2+ reabsorption in patients with renal hypomagnesemia. These findings strongly suggest that the above mentioned apical entry channels are involved in total body calcium or magnesium homeostasis.

Chapter.  3057 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Rheumatology ; Nephrology

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