Chapter

Hospital-acquired pneumonia

John Simpson

in Acute Respiratory Infections

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print July 2012 | ISBN: 9780199588084
Published online October 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191739668 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199588084.003.0003

Series: Oxford Respiratory Medicine Library

Hospital-acquired pneumonia

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Key points

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the most commonly fatal nosocomial infection - The diagnosis of HAP is difficult on clinical grounds but should be suspected when a patient develops infiltrates on a chest x-ray 2 days or more into hospital stay along with leukocytosis, pyrexia, or purulent respiratory secretions - Appropriate antibiotics should be given promptly when HAP is strongly suspected (with, if at all possible, an attempt to obtain lower respiratory tract secretions immediately beforehand) - The risk of antibiotic-resistant pathogens being responsible for HAP increases with length of stay in hospital, increased severity of illness, prior use of antibiotics, and recent contact with medical services - Several patient-specific and iatrogenic factors increase the risk of HAP, many of which can be modified to improve prevention.

Chapter.  2687 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology

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