Chapter

Pneumococcal respiratory disease and vaccines

Thomas Bewick and Wei Shen Lim

in Acute Respiratory Infections

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print July 2012 | ISBN: 9780199588084
Published online October 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191739668 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199588084.003.0008

Series: Oxford Respiratory Medicine Library

Pneumococcal respiratory disease and vaccines

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Key points

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant bacterial pathogen implicated in all lower respiratory tract infections - The organism's pathogenicity is to a large extent due to its polysaccharide capsule, which also enables classification into different serotypes/serogroups - Risk factors associated with pneumococcal pneumonia include HIV infection, defects in humoral immunity, asplenia, diabetes mellitus, cancer, high alcohol intake, smoking and the extremes of age - Pneumococcal urinary antigen detection kits enable a rapid and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal infection - Adult pneumococcal vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine does not reduce the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia, but may attenuate its severity - Childhood pneumococcal vaccination with conjugate vaccine is highly effective at reducing all pneumococcal disease in children and may also provide beneficial effects in unvaccinated children and adults as a result of herd protection

Chapter.  2342 words. 

Subjects: Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonology ; Infectious Diseases

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