Chapter

Introduction to colorectal cancer

Mike Braun

in Colorectal Cancer

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199590209
Published online May 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191739675 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199590209.003.0001

Series: Oxford Oncology Library

Introduction to colorectal cancer

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• Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the three most common incident cancers and causes of cancer related death • Most CRC is sporadic with approximately 5% of colorectal cancer due to autosomal dominant hereditary conditions (FAP and Lynch syndrome) • Environmental and dietary factors are important in the development of CRC as evidenced by data from migrant studies. The precise impact of lifestyle factors is difficult to measure due to problems in assessment and consideration of potential confounding factors • The molecular basis of hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers is increasingly well understood. Mutations and deletions in key genes such as APC in FAP and the MMR genes in Lynch syndrome have been identified. The step-wise accumulation of genetic abnormalities (APC, KRAS, p53, etc) has been recognized in sporadic tumours • The predominant staging systems are Dukes’ and TNM which are used internationally and provide important prognostic information which can guide therapeutic decisions.

Chapter.  4311 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Oncology

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