Chapter

Artificial ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Jasmeet Soar and Jerry P. Nolan

in Oxford Textbook of Critical Care

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print April 2016 | ISBN: 9780199600830
Published online April 2016 | e-ISBN: 9780191810398 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0060

Series: Oxford Textbook

Artificial ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

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When cardiac arrest occurs, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be started with chest compressions first. The use of ventilations is determined by the training of rescuers, their ability and willingness to provide rescue breaths, patient characteristics, and the underlying cause of the cardiac arrest. Trained rescuers should give two ventilations after every 30 compressions, or once the airway is secured with a tracheal tube, ventilate the patient at 10 breaths/min without any pause in chest compressions. Rescuers who are unable or unwilling to provide effective ventilation, while awaiting expert help should use compression-only CPR. Ventilations are needed for the treatment of cardiac arrest in children, when arrest is from a primary respiratory cause, or during a prolonged cardiac arrest. Choice of ventilation technique depends on rescuer skills and the airway used. Effective oxygenation and ventilation can be maintained during CPR with a tidal volume of approximately 500 mL given over an inspiratory time of 1 second. Rescuers should give supplemental oxygen in as high a concentration as possible during CPR in order to rapidly correct tissue hypoxia. Once restoration of a spontaneous circulation has been achieved the inspired oxygen should be adjusted to maintain oxygen saturation between 94 and 98%.

Chapter.  2232 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Critical Care

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