Chapter

The heart and cardiovascular disease

T. Hugh Jones

in Testosterone Deficiency in Men

Second edition

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print December 2012 | ISBN: 9780199651672
Published online December 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780191742958 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199651672.003.0012

Series: Oxford Endocrinology Library

The heart and cardiovascular disease

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Male gender is a major cardiovascular risk factor which has not been adequately explained. Low testosterone levels are associated with the presence and the degree of atherosclerosis. Low testosterone levels are associated with several cardiovascular risk factors which include visceral obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia dyslipidaemia, hypertension endothelial dysfunction and a pro-inflammatory milieu. Testosterone therapy improves exercise-induced cardiac ischaemia in men with chronic stable angina. Testosterone therapy improves functional exercise capacity in men with moderate chronic heart failure. Low testosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Testosterone replacement therapy should aim to maintain testosterone levels within the normal physiological range.

Chapter.  5622 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Endocrinology and Diabetes

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