Chapter

Neurogenesis and Epilepsy

Jack M. Parent and Michelle M. Kron

in Jasper's Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies

Fourth edition

Published on behalf of ©Jeffrey L. Noebels, Massimo Avoli, Michael A. Rogawski, Richard W. Olsen, and Antonio V. Delgado-Escueta

Published in print July 2012 | ISBN: 9780199746545
Published online April 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322817 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199746545.003.0038

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

Neurogenesis and Epilepsy

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Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common and often intractable form of epilepsy. Approximately 50 million people suffer from different epilepsies worldwide,1 30%–40% of whom may continue to have poorly controlled seizures despite therapy.2,3 Medial TLE is estimated to be the most common cause of intractable epilepsy in this population.4 In addition to chronic seizures, the long-term morbidity of mTLE includes an increased incidence of depression5,6 and problems with learning and memory7,8 that may progress despite adequate seizure control.9 Thus, progress in the study of mTLE is critical for developing better therapies to ease the large burden of this disorder. Humans with mTLE often have an initial precipitating event, followed by a latent period and subsequent development of epilepsy later in life. This knowledge has led to the development of the most common animal models of mTLE. In these models, a prolonged seizure (termed status epilepticus, SE) is induced by either electrical stimulation or a chemoconvulsant, leading to injury as the initial precipitating event. After a seizure-free latent period, spontaneous seizures develop and persist for the lifetime of the animal.10,11 The two most commonly used chemconvulsant-induced SE models of mTLE are the kainic acid and pilocarpine models.

Chapter.  5012 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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