Chapter

The Generation of Cortical Interneurons

Diego M. Gelman, Oscar Marín and John L.R. Rubenstein

in Jasper's Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies

Fourth edition

Published on behalf of ©Jeffrey L. Noebels, Massimo Avoli, Michael A. Rogawski, Richard W. Olsen, and Antonio V. Delgado-Escueta

Published in print July 2012 | ISBN: 9780199746545
Published online April 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322817 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199746545.003.0061

Series: Contemporary Neurology Series

The Generation of Cortical Interneurons

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Most, if not all, mouse pallial interneurons are derived from three progenitor regions in the embryonic subpallium: MGE, CGE, and POA (Fig. 61–3). While there is controversy about this in the human, there is strong evidence that the ganglionic eminences are fundamental sources for pallial interneurons in all vertebrates. Development of these regions is regulated by multiple transcription factors. Arx, Ascl1, and Dlx1,2,5&6 have roles in all of these regions, whereas MGE development is regulated by Nkx2-1, Lhx6, Lhx8, and Sox6, and CGE development is regulated by Gsx2. Future studies should aim at elucidating the molecular mechanisms downstream of these transcription factors that regulate cell fate specification and differentiation of specific interneuron subtypes. Furthermore, because many of the transcription factors that regulate early interneuron development are expressed in mature interneurons (e.g., Arx, Dlx1,2,5&6, Lhx6, and Sox6), it is likely that they have roles in controlling interneuron function and/or survival, such as Dlx1.36 As interneuron defects that could contribute to epilepsy include abnormalities in their production, migration, differentiation, function, and survival, the mechanisms gleaned from basic studies should provide insights into the molecular, cellular, and histological underpinnings of epileptogenesis.

Chapter.  6450 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Neurology

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