Chapter

Osteomyelitis, Infectious Arthritis, and Orthopedic Device Infection

Elie F Berbari and Douglas R Osmon

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Published on behalf of © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780199827626
Published online June 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199929641 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0034

Series: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press

Osteomyelitis, Infectious Arthritis, and Orthopedic Device Infection

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Infections involving the bones and joints (osteomyelitis, infectious arthritis, and prosthetic joint infections) are covered in this chapter. Two major mechanisms by which osteomyelitis occur are contiguous inoculation and direct inoculation. Contiguous inoculation occurs when microorganisms contaminate the bone directly through an ulcer adjacent to the bone, trauma, or surgery on the bone. Most cases of infectious arthritis due to bacteria are the consequence of hematogenous seeding from an infection elsewhere in the body. Direct inoculation of the joint occurs through surgical procedures, such as arthroscopy or therapeutic injections. Infectious arthritis can cause irreversible cartilage damage and irreversible dysfunction of the joint from recruitment of leukocytes that release enzymes that destroy cartilage. Prosthetic joints are used to treat painful arthritides, to relieve pain in patients with spinal stenosis, and to fix fractures in patients with long bone fractures Results are often excellent, but infection is a major complication of the procedures.

Chapter.  4097 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases

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