Chapter

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection<sup>1</sup>

Zelalem Temesgen

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Published on behalf of © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780199827626
Published online June 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199929641 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0036

Series: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection1

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus, a member of the Retroviridae family (retroviruses). There are 2 genetically distinct types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2

HIV-1 is further classified into subtypes, also known as clades. HIV-1 is the predominant HIV type globally. Donated blood has been screened for HIV-1 since 1985 in the United States. The following factors have been identified with transmission of HIV: sexual contact, perinatal infection, parenteral inoculation (eg, intravenous drug injection, occupational exposure), receipt of blood products, and receipt of donated organs or semen. The most common mode of transmission is sexual intercourse. Traumatic intercourse and ulcerative genital infections increase the risk of HIV transmission. The proper use of condoms greatly reduces the risk of HIV transmission. The diagnosis and treatment of HIV and AIDS are also reviewed.

Chapter.  10483 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Infectious Diseases

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