Chapter

HIV-Associated Opportunistic Infections and Conditions

Anne M Meehan and Eric M Poeschla

in Mayo Clinic Infectious Diseases Board Review

Published on behalf of © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Published in print January 2012 | ISBN: 9780199827626
Published online June 2012 | e-ISBN: 9780199929641 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199827626.003.0037

Series: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press

HIV-Associated Opportunistic Infections and Conditions

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Opportunistic infections (OIs) accounted for most of the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection in the early era of the pandemic. Introduction of effective primary and secondary antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens markedly decreased their incidence. Later in the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the introduction of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) further reduced OI mortality independently of antimicrobial prophylaxis. HIV-associated OIs still occur when HIV is newly diagnosed and the course of care is in its early stages or when HAART therapy fails or antimicrobial prophylaxis is stopped prematurely. Immune status of the patient is the critical factor in determining whether a specific OI occurs. Management of specific OIs, such as pneumocystis pneumonia, encephalitis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis, is also reviewed.

Chapter.  5151 words. 

Subjects: Infectious Diseases

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