Heart Failure: Diagnosis and Evaluation

Richard J. Rodeheffer and Margaret M. Redfield

in Mayo Clinic Cardiology

Fourth edition

Published on behalf of © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

Published in print November 2012 | ISBN: 9780199915712
Published online May 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199322824 | DOI:

Series: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press

Heart Failure: Diagnosis and Evaluation

Show Summary Details


Heart failure has been defined as the pathophysiologic state in which an abnormality of cardiac function prevents the heart from pumping blood at a rate commensurate with metabolic requirements, or allows it to do so only when ventricular filling pressures are excessively increased. However, only some patients with this circulatory pathophysiology manifest the signs and symptoms of the clinical syndrome we call heart failure. This chapter reviews the 4 stages of heart failure and focuses on its diagnosis and evaluation.

Chapter.  3430 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Cardiovascular Medicine

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Buy this work at Oxford University Press »

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.