Journal Article

Yunnan-III models for evolutionary population synthesis

F. Zhang, L. Li, Z. Han, Y. Zhuang and X. Kang

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 428, issue 4, pages 3390-3408
Published in print February 2013 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online November 2012 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI:
Yunnan-III models for evolutionary population synthesis

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We build the Yunnan-III evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models by using the mesa stellar evolution code, BaSeL stellar spectra library and the initial mass functions (IMFs) of Kroupa and Salpeter, and present colours and integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) of solar-metallicity stellar populations (SPs) in the range of 1 Myr to 15 Gyr. The main characteristic of the Yunnan-III EPS models is the usage of a set of self-consistent solar-metallicity stellar evolutionary tracks (the masses of stars are from 0.1 to 100 M). This set of tracks is obtained by using the state-of-the-art mesa code.

mesa code can evolve stellar models through thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase for low- and intermediate-mass stars. By comparisons, we confirm that the inclusion of TP-AGB stars makes the VK, V − J and V − R colours of SPs redder and the infrared flux larger at ages log(t/yr) ≳ 7.6 [the differences reach the maximum at log(t/yr) ∼ 8.6, ∼0.5–0.2 mag for colours, approximately two times for K-band flux]. We also find that the colour-evolution trends of Model with-TPAGB at intermediate and large ages are similar to those from the starburst99 code, which employs the Padova-AGB stellar library, BaSeL spectral library and the Kroupa IMF. At last, we compare the colours with the other EPS models comprising TP-AGB stars (such as CB07, M05, V10 and POPSTAR), and find that the B − V colour agrees with each other but the V-K colour shows a larger discrepancy among these EPS models [∼1 mag when 8 ≲ log(t/yr) ≲ 9].

The stellar evolutionary tracks, isochrones, colours and ISEDs can be obtained on request from the first author or from our website ( Using the isochrones, you can build your EPS models. Now the format of stellar evolutionary tracks is the same as that in the starburst99 code; you can put them into the starburst99 code and get the SP’s results. Moreover, the colours involving other passbands or on other systems (e.g. HST F439W − F555W colour on AB system) can also be obtained on request.

Keywords: stars: AGB and post-AGB; stars: evolution; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: fundamental parameters; galaxies: stellar content

Journal Article.  11240 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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