Journal Article

Low polymorphonuclear cell degranulation during citrate anticoagulation: a comparison between citrate and heparin dialysis.

J C Bos, M P Grooteman, A J van Houte, M Schoorl, J van Limbeek and M J Nubé

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Volume 12, issue 7, pages 1387-1393
Published in print July 1997 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 1997 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/12.7.1387
Low polymorphonuclear cell degranulation during citrate anticoagulation: a comparison between citrate and heparin dialysis.

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INTRODUCTION: Haemodialysis (HD)-induced bio-incompatibility includes alterations in both cellular elements and humoral factors. As far as polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are concerned, an increase in both adhesion and degranulation has been reported. However, whereas increased PMN adherence and aggregation is highly linked with early transient complement activation, degranulation seems a continuous process, independent from the formation of complement degradation products. In the process of cell activation, including PMN degranulation, divalent cations (Ca2+) appear to play a pivotal role. As regionally administering citrate creates an almost Ca(2+)-free environment within the dialyser, it is tempting to speculate that Ca2+ dependent phenomena of bio-incompatibility, originating within the dialyser, can be attenuated by substituting conventional heparin for citrate. METHODS: Therefore, both anticoagulation modalities were compared in 10 stable patients, undergoing haemodialysis (HD) treatment with cellulose-triacetate membranes (CTA) only. Apart from the intracellular granule products myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LF), the classical parameters of bio-incompatibility, peripheral blood neutropenia and complement activation, were measured. RESULTS: Analysis of MPO and LF gradients across the dialyser (concentration in efferent line-concentration in afferent line) suggested that degranulation is an early process, that occurs mainly within the extracorporeal circuit. Citrate abolished the release of MPO almost completely, whereas LF release was partially inhibited. Neither neutropenia, nor complement activation could be correlated with the occurrence of degranulation. CONCLUSIONS: HD-induced PMN degranulation seems largely independent from complement activation, but primarily reliant on Ca2+, at least in the case of CTA membranes.

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Subjects: Nephrology

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