Journal Article

Leptin in CAPD patients: serum concentrations and peritoneal loss.

A Kagan, N Haran, L Leschinsky, N Shuali and J Rapoport

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 14, issue 2, pages 400-405
Published in print February 1999 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online February 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/14.2.400
Leptin in CAPD patients: serum concentrations and peritoneal loss.

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BACKGROUND: To determine whether serum leptin concentrations in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are influenced by peritoneal loss of leptin and to compare serum leptin levels of normal subjects with those of patients receiving renal replacement therapy such as haemodialysis (HD), CAPD, or kidney transplantation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four individuals were investigated: six females and 14 males on standard CAPD; 13 females and 13 males on chronic HD; 10 female and eight male kidney transplant recipients, and 10 female and 10 male subjects as controls. Morning serum, 8-h and 24-h samples of peritoneal fluid concentrated to 6-20-fold by Centricon 3 (cutoff 3000 daltons), and 24-h urinary concentrations of leptin were measured with commercial RIA (Linco Research, Inc., USA). Venous blood and peritoneal fluid samples of albumin, beta2-microglobulin, glucose, urea, and creatinine were determined by standard laboratory techniques. Serum insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Patients (men and women) on CAPD and after kidney transplantation exhibited significantly higher serum concentrations of leptin and leptin/BMI ratios than control subjects. These increased values did not reach statistical significance in HD patients. Serum leptin concentrations were correlated very significantly with BMI in all cases (r=0.380, P<0.001). Moreover, in CAPD patients (r=0.630, P<0.007) and in HD patients (r=0.668, P<0.005), but not in kidney transplant recipients or control subjects, significant correlations were observed between serum leptin and insulin concentrations. Residual renal function (RRF) in the range 0-12.8 ml/min and serum beta2-microglobulin levels in the range 7.9-47.1 mg/l did not influence serum leptin levels in CAPD and HD patients. As expected, leptin was detected in the peritoneal fluid of CAPD patients. Twenty-four-hour peritoneal loss (30.95+/-21.05 ng/min) and 24-h peritoneal clearance (0.01+/-0.01 ml/kg/min) of leptin account for only 3.9% of estimated whole-body leptin production rate and 0.7% of leptin clearance from plasma respectively. Twenty-four-hour urinary losses of leptin in CAPD patients were negligible, accounting for 5.6+/-1.8% (range 0.3-15.2%) of total (peritoneal and urinary) loss of this hormone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that serum leptin levels are not affected by continuous peritoneal loss of leptin during CAPD and that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia contribute to elevated serum leptin concentrations in CAPD and HD patients. The aetiology of increased serum leptin levels in kidney transplant recipients is probably different from that in dialysis patients.

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Nephrology

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