Journal Article

Increased plasma malondialdehyde levels in glomerular disease as determined by a fully validated HPLC method.

J Templar, S P Kon, T P Milligan, D J Newman and M J Raftery

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 14, issue 4, pages 946-951
Published in print April 1999 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online April 1999 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/14.4.946
Increased plasma malondialdehyde levels in glomerular disease as determined by a fully validated HPLC method.

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BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species and particularly free radical induced lipid peroxidative tissue damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases. Lipid peroxidation is assessed indirectly by the measurement of secondary products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), using the widely employed thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. However, this method lacks sensitivity and specificity. We have therefore developed and validated an HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) method for measurement of MDA and applied this to a variety of plasma samples in renal patients. METHODS: The optimized method involves antioxidant treatment of the plasma sample, followed by a protein precipitation step using trichloroacetic acid, acid hydrolysis and formation of an MDA thiobarbituric acid complex. The MDA-(TBA)2 adduct is separated from other interfering compounds by C18 reverse-phase HPLC techniques, with visible detection at 532 nm. RESULTS: The assay was linear over the ranges 0.25-1.0 microM MDA and the detection limit was 0.06 microM MDA. Within-run precision was <4.5% and between-run precision was <10.0%. MDA plasma concentrations (mean+/-SD) were higher in ESRF diabetic patients (0.32 +/- 0.14 microM, n=20), non-diabetic ESRF patients (0.32 +/- 0.09 microM, n=20), and CRF patients (0.14 +/- 0.06 microM, n=40) compared to healthy controls (0.11 +/- 0.03 microM, n=40), (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.008). Levels were similar in healthy controls with normal renal function and transplanted patients (0.12 +/- 0.03 microM MDA, n=40), (P=NS). No correlation was observed between MDA and creatinine levels (r2 = 0.05, n=80), which suggests that MDA does not correlate with the degree of renal impairment. We matched CRF patients with glomerular and non-glomerular causes of renal failure for creatinine levels and found that MDA levels were higher in patients with glomerulonephritis (0.16 +/- 0.06 microM) than in those with CRF from non-glomerular causes (0.12 +/- 0.04 microM, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We have introduced a reliable and sensitive HPLC technique to enhance the specificity of MDA-(TBA)2 measurement, with a significant improvement in HPLC column life. Using this method, picomole quantities of MDA can be detected in plasma. We have shown that MDA levels are significantly raised in patients with CRF due to glomerulonephritis, regardless of serum creatinine, which suggests that there is oxidative injury independent of any possible MDA retention due to renal impairment.

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Subjects: Nephrology

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