Background.Mycophenolic acid has been shown to be effective for the prevention and treatment of renal allograft rejection. Rejection episodes were found to be associated with an infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages/monocytes into the diseased kidney. Expression of RANTES, HLA-DR and ICAM-1 may be important for the pathogenesis of this leukocyte infiltration. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antiproliferative and immunosuppressive agent mycophenolic acid (MPA) on cell growth and cytokine-induced expression of RANTES, HLA-DR and ICAM-1 of highly purified proximal (PTC) and distal tubular cells (DTC) from human kidney.
Methods.Human PTC and DTC were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of MPA (0.25–50 μM) or MPA plus guanosine (100 μM). Total cell number (DNA content) was determined after 4 days of cell culture by a non-radioactive fluorescence assay. Cells were stimulated by a combination of cytokines (IL1β+γIFN+TNFα=cytomix) or cytomix plus MPA. Secretion of RANTES protein was evaluated with an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Cell surface expression of HLA-DR and ICAM-1 was assessed by flow cytometric analysis.
Results.MPA inhibited cell growth of PTC and DTC in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was totally abolished by the addition of guanosine. Cytokine-induced RANTES expression was synergistically increased in the presence of MPA, an effect that was partially prevented by the addition of guanosine. Cytokine stimulation resulted in de novo expression of HLA-DR and a marked increase of ICAM-1 expression, which was partially inhibited by dexamethasone. Addition of MPA did not influence this stimulated expression.
Conclusions.We demonstrate that MPA has an effect on cell growth and chemokine release of tubular epithelial cells, and that these effects are dependent on the inhibition of cellular guanosine production. The clinical consequences of this possible pro-inflammatory effect of MPA on RANTES release may be abolished by a concomitant treatment with steroids.
Keywords: distal tubule; epithelial cells; human; mycophenolic acid; proliferation; proximal tubule
Journal Article. 5223 words. Illustrated.
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