Journal Article

Hypercalcaemia and metabolic alkalosis with betel nut chewing: emphasis on its integrative pathophysiology

Shih‐Hua Lin, Yuh‐Feng Lin, Surinder Cheema‐Dhadli, Mogamat Razeen Davids and Mitchell L. Halperin

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 17, issue 5, pages 708-714
Published in print May 2002 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online May 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Hypercalcaemia and metabolic alkalosis with betel nut chewing: emphasis on its integrative pathophysiology

Show Summary Details


Background. Events in the gastrointestinal tract that might contribute to a high absorption of calcium were simulated in vitro to evaluate why only a small proportion of individuals who ingest alkaline calcium salts develop hypercalcaemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis.

Methods. A patient who chewed and swallowed around 40 betel nuts daily developed hypercalcaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypokalaemia with renal potassium wasting, and renal insufficiency. The quantities of calcium and alkali per betel nut preparation were measured. Factors that might increase intestinal absorption of calcium were evaluated.

Results. Hypercalcaemia in the index case was accompanied by a high daily calcium excretion (248 mg, 6.2 mmol). Circulating levels of 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone were low. Hypokalaemia with a high transtubular K+ concentration gradient, metabolic alkalosis, a low excretion of phosphate and a very low glomerular filtration rate were prominent features.

Conclusions. Possible explanations for the pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis and hypokalaemia are provided. We speculate that a relatively greater availability of ionized calcium than inorganic phosphate in the lumen of the intestinal tract could have enhanced dietary calcium absorption.

Keywords: bicarbonate; calcium; hypokalaemia; milk‐alkali syndrome; phosphate

Journal Article.  4947 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.