Journal Article

Improved efficacy of basiliximab over antilymphocyte globulin induction therapy in paediatric renal transplantation

Godfrey Clark, Gráinne Walsh, Pankaj Deshpande and Geoff Koffman

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 17, issue 7, pages 1304-1309
Published in print July 2002 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 2002 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/17.7.1304
Improved efficacy of basiliximab over antilymphocyte globulin induction therapy in paediatric renal transplantation

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Background. Basiliximab is a chimeric human/mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha chain of the IL‐2 receptor, CD25, which has been reported as successfully reducing rejection in adult renal transplant recipients. Reported clinical experience of basiliximab in paediatric renal transplantation is limited.

Methods. Using two intravenous doses on day 0 (pre‐operatively) and day 4 with prednisolone and cyclosporin A (dual) maintenance immunosuppression in 42 children undergoing renal transplantation in our unit (SIM group), we have compared patient and graft outcome, rejection rates in the first 6 months, renal function and the incidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with 42 consecutive children who previously received antilymphocyte globulin immunoprophylaxis with prednisolone, cyclosporin A and azathioprine (triple) maintenance immunosuppression (ALG group). The two groups were similar, including HLA mismatching, apart from age and size at transplantation (SIM=10.3±5.4 years vs ALG=12.4±4.2 years, P<0.05).

Results. One patient in the SIM group died from food inhalation with a functioning kidney and one patient in the ALG group from Pneumocystis pneumonia and post‐transplant lymphoproliferative disorders with a rejecting graft. Both 1‐ and 2‐year actuarial graft survivals were 93% for the SIM group and 86% for the ALG group (NS). Three grafts were lost in the SIM group—none from rejection (thrombosis 2, death 1)—and seven in the ALG group—three from rejection. Occurrence of biopsy documented rejection in the first 6 months after transplantation was 0.15±0.22 for the SIM group and 0.35±0.51 episodes per pt‐month at risk for ALG treatment (P<0.04). Early rejection within 30 post‐operative days occurred in only four SIM patients, three of whom had undergone retransplantation. Forty‐seven per cent of rejection episodes occurred between days 30 and 44 in SIM treated patients. Switching to tacrolimus was similar in both groups; 24% of the SIM groups were prescribed triple therapy. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was 46.0 and 46.2 ml/min for SIM and ALG groups, respectively, six months after transplantation. Ten per cent of SIM and 19% of ALG treated patients developed clinically significant CMV infection (NS) but none of 16 (R+) SIM children had CMV infection compared with 8 out of 15 (R+) ALG patients (P<0.01).

Conclusions. Basiliximab immunoprophylaxis and dual therapy reduces rejection episodes in the first six months and maintains graft survival and function after paediatric renal transplantation. Seventy‐six per cent of children receiving basiliximab immunoprophylaxis were successfully maintained on long‐term dual immunosuppression. This immunosuppressive protocol reduces CMV disease in CMV+ recipients compared with ALG induction and triple therapy.

Keywords: ALG; basiliximab; paediatric renal transplantation

Journal Article.  3233 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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