Journal Article

Kidney transplants, antibodies and rejection: is C4d a magic marker?

Volker Nickeleit and Michael J. Mihatsch

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 18, issue 11, pages 2232-2239
Published in print November 2003 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online November 2003 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Kidney transplants, antibodies and rejection: is C4d a magic marker?

Show Summary Details


The immunohistochemical detection of the complement degradation product C4d in renal allograft biopsies has gained considerable clinical interest in recent years. The accumulation of C4d along peritubular capillaries is generally regarded as a marker for an antibody-mediated allo-response and is associated with poor graft survival. The aim of this review is to discuss histological findings associated with the deposition of C4d. Emphasis is placed on diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Unanswered questions regarding C4d and graft injury are highlighted.

Keywords: antibodies; C4d; diagnosis; rejection; therapy

Journal Article.  4612 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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