Journal Article

Anaemia and heart failure: aetiology and treatment

Marc W. Klutstein and Dan Tzivoni

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 20, issue suppl_7, pages vii7-vii10
Published in print July 2005 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Anaemia and heart failure: aetiology and treatment

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Heart failure (HF) is a common disease associated with poor prognosis. Anaemia is commonly associated with HF due to bone marrow depression, reduced availability of iron and haemodilution, and is sometimes aggravated by too frequent blood testing. Low haemoglobin is very detrimental to the haemodynamic state of the patient with decreased cardiac output as it further diminishes the oxygen supply to the tissues. When anaemia is associated with HF. and renal failure, the patient enters a vicious cycle called cardio renal anaemia syndrome. The prognosis of patients with HF is worse as the haemoglobin is lower and even mild anaemia is associated with <1 year survival. Aggressive correction of the anaemia by subcutaneous injections of erythropoeitin and intravenous iron has been shown to improve the functional capacity and quality of life of patients with cardio renal anaemia syndrome and to reduce the need for hospitalization. However, intravenous iron can be detrimental because of increased formation of free radicals, oxidative stress and risk of infection. The level of haemoglobin needed to be achieved is not clear, but it seems indicated to maintain it above 12 g%.

Keywords: anaemia; heart failure; prognosis; renal failure; treatment

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Nephrology

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