Journal Article

Evolution of the absorption profile of cyclosporine A in renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal study of the <i>de novo</i> and maintenance phases

Matthias Büchler, Steve Chadban, Edward Cole, Karsten Midtvedt, Eric Thervet, Hans Prestele and Paul Keown

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 21, issue 1, pages 197-202
Published in print January 2006 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online October 2005 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfi113
Evolution of the absorption profile of cyclosporine A in renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal study of the de novo and maintenance phases

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Background. Therapeutic drug monitoring for cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA-ME) is often performed using either trough levels (C0) or levels at 2 h post-dose (C2). This analysis assessed changes in C0 and C2 and their relationship to CsA-ME dose over time post-transplant in renal transplant patients.

Methods. Data were obtained from MO2ART, a prospective multicentre trial in which CsA-ME dose was adjusted based on C2 level. All 98 patients in whom C0 and C2 were available at day 5, month 3 and month 12 were included, out of 234 who completed the 12 month study. Normalized dose (ND) of CsA-ME, defined as dose per kilogram body weight, was calculated, together with C0/ND, C2/ND and C2/C0.

Results. C0/ND and C2/ND both increased between day 5 and month 3: C0/ND from 33±15 to 53±24 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg) and C2/ND from 161±64 to 248±80 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg). Between month 3 and month 12, C2/ND remained stable but C0/ND decreased to 42±20 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg) while the C2/C0 ratio increased from 5.2±1.9 to 6.5±2.3, indicating an acceleration of drug elimination. The inter-individual coefficient of variation was higher for C0/ND than for C2/ND at 3 months (45 vs 32%, P<0.05) and at 12 months (48 vs 31%, P<0.01).

Conclusions. CsA clearance accelerates between months 3 and 12 post-transplant, resulting in lower C0 levels for a given exposure (as measured by C2). As a consequence, C0 monitoring may progressively underestimate CsA exposure during the first year post-transplant. C2 monitoring contributes to improved individualized CsA-ME treatment in both the de novo phase and beyond month 3.

Keywords: absorption; C2 monitoring; cyclosporine microemulsion; renal transplantation

Journal Article.  3206 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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