Journal Article

Arterial and cardiac disease in young adults with childhood-onset end-stage renal disease—impact of calcium and vitamin D therapy

Sonia Briese, Sandra Wiesner, Joachim C. Will, Alexander Lembcke, Bernd Opgen-Rhein, Richard Nissel, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Judit Andreae, Dieter Haffner and Uwe Querfeld

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 21, issue 7, pages 1906-1914
Published in print July 2006 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online March 2006 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfl098
Arterial and cardiac disease in young adults with childhood-onset end-stage renal disease—impact of calcium and vitamin D therapy

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Background. Studies in patients with childhood-onset end-stage renal disease (ESRD) provide a diagnostic window to the evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. Hyperphosphataemia and renal osteodystrophy are particularly difficult to treat in paediatric patients, but there is only limited information regarding the effect of calcium-containing phosphate binders and vitamin D preparations on the development of CVD in the young.

Methods. We studied 40 adult patients (mean age 23.6 years) who developed ESRD at the age of 11.5± 4 years and 40 matched healthy control subjects. Nine patients were on dialysis and 31 had a functioning kidney transplant. Measurements included intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) for the detection of coronary artery calcifications (CAC), echocardiography and post-ischaemic arterial blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Patient characteristics, atherosclerotic risk factors and a complete account of prescribed medications were analysed for correlations with arterial and cardiac changes.

Results. The IMT was not significantly different in patients and controls; four patients (10%) had coronary calcifications on EBCT. Twenty-five patients (62.5%) had left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients had a 40% reduction of post-ischaemic arterial flow. Morphological alterations of the heart and arteries were significantly correlated with the duration of ESRD and dialysis time, and with the cumulative intake of calcium-containing phosphate binders and active vitamin D preparations. Functional changes (vascular reactivity) were correlated with duration of ESRD and non-traditional risk factors.

Conclusions. Young adults with ESRD since childhood have systemic CVD characterized by a decrease in arterial elasticity, the occurrence of CAC and changes in left ventricular morphology. Treatment with calcium-containing phosphate binders and active vitamin D preparations is independently associated in a dose-dependent manner with surrogate markers for CVD.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; calcium; calcifications; children; end-stage renal disease; vitamin D

Journal Article.  5449 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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