Journal Article

Elevated relative mortality risk with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease decreases with age

Neil T. Raymond, Daniel Zehnder, Stephen C. H. Smith, Julie A. Stinson, Hendrik Lehnert and Robert M. Higgins

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 22, issue 11, pages 3214-3220
Published in print November 2007 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 2007 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfm396
Elevated relative mortality risk with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease decreases with age

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Background. Renal disease is common in the general population and whilst few people progress to end-stage renal failure, mortality is increased. The aim of this study was to examine all-cause mortality risk in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Methods. Data were extracted from a computerized central laboratory system for a defined geographical area over a 3-year study period. The eGFR was calculated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and aligned to the MDRD laboratory. Average annual mortality and relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality was determined and compared for defined age and CKD bands.

Results. 106 366 participants (55.5% female; 85% White, 13% South Asian, 2% Black and others) were eligible and studied, representing 49% of the Coventry adult population. 12 540 (12%) of the sample had some evidence of decreased kidney function, with an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 7611 (7%) participants died and there were significantly elevated risks of mortality with increasing renal dysfunction; RR = 4.0, 8.3, 16.2 and 43.5 for eGFR 45–59, 30–44, 15–29 and <15 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Within age bands, RRs were statistically significantly raised with CKD progression and within CKD stage, RR of death decreased as age increased.

Conclusions. CKD prevalence increased with age and absolute and RR of mortality increased with progression of CKD. People aged over 75 years, with mild-to-moderate renal disease, representing 41% of this age group, have no increased RR of mortality. Further study of CKD and mortality, particularly progression over time and with respect to age is needed.

Keywords: all-cause mortality; chronic kidney disease; diabetes; South Asian ethnicity

Journal Article.  4398 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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