Journal Article

Graft intolerance syndrome in children with failed kidney allografts—clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome

Irit Krause, Roxana Cleper, Alexander Belenky, Eli Atar, Nathan Bar-Nathan and Miriam Davidovits

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 23, issue 12, pages 4036-4040
Published in print December 2008 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online June 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Graft intolerance syndrome in children with failed kidney allografts—clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome

Show Summary Details


Background. Failed renal allografts left in situ may cause inflammation presenting as graft intolerance syndrome (GIS). There are no sufficient data regarding clinical course and treatment options of GIS in paediatric patients.

Methods. A retrospective study of all children with failed renal allografts treated in Schneider's Children Medical Center of Israel during a 10-year period was conducted. Diagnosis of GIS was based on clinical criteria and persistence of renal perfusion according to radio-isotopic scan.

Results. Twenty children with failed renal allografts were studied. The mean age at transplantation was 10.3 ± 4.9 years. The mean graft survival was 2.9 ± 2.5 years. Two grafts were removed immediately due to vascular complications. Of the 18 patients with transplants remaining in situ, 11 (61%) developed GIS within 2.7 ± 2.1 months after restarting dialysis. GIS manifestations included fever (91%), local tenderness (82%), hypertension (73%), abdominal pain (64%), macroscopic haematuria (27%), pulmonary congestion (27%) and enlargement of the graft (18%). Laboratory findings included anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated ESR and CRP. Three patients were successfully treated with indomethacin and/or prednisone. In one patient the graft was surgically removed due to suspected post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Seven patients underwent percutaneous embolization of the graft, and in six patients a complete resolution of symptoms occurred within 32.2 ± 45 days. Complications included abscess and retinal artery thrombosis. Six patients were successfully re-transplanted, three are still on haemodialysis and two died of causes unrelated to GIS.

Conclusions. GIS may be common among children with failed renal allografts. Percutaneous embolization of the graft seems effective and safe. Further studies are needed to evaluate late outcome of paediatric patients with GIS.

Keywords: graft; intolerance; paediatric; renal transplantation

Journal Article.  3100 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.