Journal Article

Stepwise increase in the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension with the stages of chronic kidney disease

Li-Tao Cheng, Yan-Li Gao, Yue Gu, Li Zhang, Shu-Hong Bi, Wen Tang and Tao Wang

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 23, issue 12, pages 3895-3900
Published in print December 2008 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 2008 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Stepwise increase in the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension with the stages of chronic kidney disease

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Background. Hypertension is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) accounts for most patients with inadequate blood pressure (BP) control. However, it remains unclear whether the prevalence of ISH would increase with the advancement of CKD.

Methods. CKD patients of stages 3, 4 and 5 were recruited (n = 324). Based on office systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), they were classified into any of the four hypertensive subtypes: normotension (SBP/DBP <140/90 mmHg), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, SBP <140 mmHg and DBP ≥90 mmHg), ISH (SBP ≥140 mmHg and DBP <90 mmHg) and systolic–diastolic hypertension (SDH, SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg).

Results. The control rate was 45.7% at stage 3, which decreased with the advancement of CKD (control rate was 51.9%, 40.4% and 38.6% in stage 3, 4 and 5, respectively; P < 0.05). The prevalence of IDH changed from 5.0% to 5.3% and 0% from stage 3 to 4 and 5, while there was no significant change in the prevalence of SDH (15.0%, 14.9% and 15.7% at stage 3, 4 and 5, respectively). There was a stepwise increase in the prevalence of ISH with the stages of CKD (it was 28.1%, 39.4% and 45.7% in stage 3, 4 and 5, respectively). Logistic regression showed that age and CKD stages [compared with stage 3, stage 4 and 5 had 2.57 (95% CI 1.04–6.33) and 3.68 (95% CI 1.09–12.47) folds higher risk to develop ISH, respectively] were independent predictors of ISH.

Conclusion. The prevalence of ISH increased correspondingly with advanced stages of CKD, which may partially contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality during the progress of CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hypertension; isolated diastolic hypertension; isolated systolic hypertension; systolic–diastolic hypertension

Journal Article.  4194 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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