Journal Article

Comparison of the renal, cardiovascular and hepatic toxicity data of original intravenous iron compounds

Jorge E. Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Leda Olivieri and Margarita Angerosa

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 25, issue 11, pages 3631-3640
Published in print November 2010 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online May 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:

Show Summary Details


Background. Intravenous (i.v.) iron is essential for managing haemoglobin levels in haemodialysis patients. However, i.v. iron may cause variable degrees of toxicity. This is mainly related to the pharmacological characteristics of any given i.v. iron compound.

Methods. This blinded study examines the effects of five i.v. iron preparations on haemodynamic and functional parameters. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/group) received high or low molecular weight (HMW/LMW) iron dextran, ferric gluconate (FG), ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), iron sucrose (ISC) or isotonic saline solution (control). Five i.v. doses of iron (40 mg iron/kg) or saline were administered over 4 weeks.

Results. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in the LMW dextran group, whereas serum iron and percentage transferrin saturation were significantly elevated in all treatment groups. Creatinine clearance was reduced and urinary protein excretion increased in the FG group only (P < 0.01). Liver enzyme levels in the blood were increased (P < 0.01) in the FG and two dextran groups compared with the FCM and ISC groups. Analysis of liver, heart and kidney homogenates showed a significant increase in catalase and malondialdehyde levels in the FG group, and an increase in CuZn-superoxide dismutase and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity accompanied with a decrease in the reduced-to-oxidized GSH ratio in the FG and two dextran groups (P < 0.01). Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 levels were significantly elevated in liver, heart and kidney samples from the FG and two dextran groups but not the FCM, ISC or control groups.

Conclusions. These findings indicate that FG and HMW/LMW iron dextran have less favourable safety profiles than FCM and ISC in normal rats.

Keywords: anaemia; chronic kidney disease; intravenous iron; oxidative stress; rats

Journal Article.  6141 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.