Journal Article

Prematurity, small for gestational age and perinatal parameters in children with congenital, hereditary and acquired chronic kidney disease

Doris Franke, Sina Völker, Sanny Haase, Leo Pavičić, Uwe Querfeld, Jochen H.H. Ehrich and Miroslav Živičnjak

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 25, issue 12, pages 3918-3924
Published in print December 2010 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online May 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq300

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Background. Low birth weight has been identified as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods. We analysed perinatal parameters taken from the National Birth Certificates of 435 children with CKD stages 3–5 of different aetiology and time of onset of CKD. Diseases were classified as congenital with onset of renal disease during fetal life (n = 260; 60%), hereditary as genetically determined with onset after 3 months of life (n = 93; 21%) and acquired CKD (n = 82; 19%).

Results. The rates of prematurity and small for gestational age (SGA) were elevated in children with congenital (39.3% and 29.2%), hereditary (24.7% and 22.6%) and acquired CKD (15.5% and 29.3%); these compared to 8% (for both) in the normal population. Newborns with congenital CKD had a significantly lower gestational age [median 38 weeks, interquartile range (IQR) 36–40 weeks] than those with hereditary (39.9 weeks, IQR 37.5–40 weeks) or acquired CKD (40 weeks, IQR 38–40 weeks; P < 0.001). Median birth weight and length were lower in newborns with congenital than in hereditary and acquired diseases [2975 g (IQR 2460–3420 g) versus 3250 g (IQR 2740–3580 g) and 3260 g (IQR 2858–3685 g) (P < 0.01); 49 cm (IQR 47–52) versus 50 cm (IQR 48–52.8) and 51 cm (IQR 49–53) (P < 0.01)]. Head circumference was smaller (P < 0.05), and Apgar scores were lower (P < 0.005) in newborns with congenital diseases than in hereditary and acquired diseases.

Conclusions. Children with congenital CKD had the highest rate of prematurity, a significantly lower birth weight, length, head circumference and Apgar score than newborns with hereditary or acquired CKD. Irrespective of the aetiology of CKD, all of the children had a significantly higher rate of SGA and prematurity than the reference population. We conclude that both SGA and prematurity predispose for advanced renal disease in childhood and that fetal kidney disease impairs fetal growth.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; fetal programming; low birth weight; prematurity; small for gestational age

Journal Article.  3829 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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