Journal Article

Blood cadmium level’s association with 18-month mortality in diabetic patients with maintenance haemodialysis

Tzung-Hai Yen, Ja-Liang Lin, Dan-Tzu Lin-Tan, Ching-Wei Hsu, Kuan-Hsing Chen and Hsiang-Hao Hsu

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 26, issue 3, pages 998-1005
Published in print March 2011 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online July 2010 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Blood cadmium level’s association with 18-month mortality in diabetic patients with maintenance haemodialysis

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Background. Cadmium exposure is related to severity of diabetes and diabetes-related organ damage in diabetic patients. Elevated blood cadmium levels (BCLs) are well known in maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients but the clinical significance in diabetic MHD patients remains unknown.

Methods. A total of 212 diabetic MHD patients were enrolled in this 18-month prospective study and were categorized into three equal groups according to the basal BCL: high (> 0.889 μg/L; n = 71), middle (0.373–0.889 μg/L; n = 70) and low (< 0.373 μg/L; n = 71) BCL groups. The mortality and cause of death were recorded and analysed longitudinally.

Results. Patients with high BCL had trends of higher white blood cell counts, glycosylated haemoglobin, phosphate and blood lead levels than other group patients. At the end of the follow-up, 31 patients had died. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the high BCL group patients had a higher mortality than other group patients (log-rank test, P = 0.036). Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that logarithmic BCL was associated with increased hazard ratios (HR) for the all-cause mortality (HR = 2.336, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.099–4.964, P = 0.027) in diabetic MHD patients. Similarly, if the low BCL group was the reference, the high BCL was associated with increased HR for all-cause mortality (HR = 2.865, 95% CI = 1.117–7.353, P = 0.043) in these patients.

Conclusions. The study results first demonstrated that BCL is associated with increased HR for 18-month all-cause mortality in diabetic MHD patients. Avoiding smoking and high cadmium-containing food may be important in these patients.

Keywords: blood cadmium levels; diabetes; inflammation; maintenance haemodialysis; mortality

Journal Article.  5438 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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