Journal Article

Effects of water uptake on melamine renal stone formation in mice

Jiao Peng, Daxu Li, Yee Kwan Chan, Yan Chen, Jonathan R. Lamb, Paul K.H. Tam and Hani El-Nezami

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 27, issue 6, pages 2225-2231
Published in print June 2012 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online October 2011 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Effects of water uptake on melamine renal stone formation in mice

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Melamine-tainted food can induce kidney stones both in humans and animals and in domestic animals, severe cases caused acute kidney failure and death. Although increasing water intake can ameliorate kidney stone formation, its effect on melamine (Mel)-induced kidney stones has not been studied.


We have analysed the effect of restricted ingestion of drinking water on melamine stone formation in mice. They were given melamine and cyanuric acid orally and received drinking water either freely or for a restricted time. Kidney stone formation and renal function were monitored.


Mice receiving drinking water for a restricted 10-h period initially lost body weight, which returned to normal within 2 days. No other abnormalities were observed. Ingestion of melamine alone failed to induce kidney stones even under conditions of restricted drinking water. In mice treated with melamine together with cyanuric acid for 3 days, no renal stones were formed when the supply of drinking was normal. However, when drinking water was limited, stone formation was observed and accompanied by high levels of serum urea and creatinine. An increase in urine haemoglobin and glucose levels was also found. The administration resulted in up-regulated tissue osteopontin, kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin messenger RNA expression and macrophage infiltration.


Our results indicate the importance of water intake in the formation of melamine-induced renal stone formation in the mouse and provide new information on the mechanisms of melamine stone formation.

Keywords: melamine renal stone; mouse; water ingestion; osteopontin; macrophage

Journal Article.  3314 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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