Journal Article

Prevalence and risk factors of pre-diabetes after renal transplantation: a single-centre cohort study in 200 consecutive patients

Frank-Peter Tillmann, Ivo Quack, Ana Schenk, Bernd Grabensee, Lars C. Rump and Gerd R. Hetzel

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 27, issue 8, pages 3330-3337
Published in print August 2012 | ISSN: 0931-0509
Published online April 2012 | e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs020
Prevalence and risk factors of pre-diabetes after renal transplantation: a single-centre cohort study in 200 consecutive patients

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Background

After renal transplantation, patients are prone to develop impairments in glucose metabolism. In 2005, the American Diabetes Association published new guidelines on the diagnosis of pre-diabetes [plasma glucose levels from 100 to 125 mg/dL fasting or from 140 to 199 mg/dL 2 h after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence and the potentially associated factors of pre-diabetes in a cohort of renal transplant patients on maintenance immunosuppressive medication. Furthermore, the diagnostic value of HbA1-c measurements in predicting pre-diabetes in transplant patients is undetermined.

Methods

Two hundred consecutive renal transplant patients of our outpatient transplant clinic were evaluated using a standard OGTT. On the day of testing, multiple factors presumably associated with pre-diabetes were assessed via a standardized questionnaire: daily steroid dosage, triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula], systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), BMI <>30 and <>25, number of renal transplants, number of rejection episodes prior to testing, source of renal transplant, cause of renal failure and medications as related to the prescription of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mophetil, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, AT1-blockers, statins, β-blockers and thiazide diuretics. Patients diagnosed with pre-diabetes were compared to subjects with normal test results. Fishers exact test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were applied to compare the two study populations, whereas multivariate logistic regression was used to seek potential risk factors as related to other covariates. Risk ratios (RRs) to develop pre-diabetes were calculated for significant variables.

Results

Ten patients had results indicative of post-transplant diabetes whereas data sets of three other patients were incomplete and were thus not included in the analysis. From the remaining 187 patients, 130 (69.5%) displayed normal test results whereas 57 (30.5%) had results indicative of pre-diabetes. On multivariate regression analysis, patients with pre-diabetes were significantly older {55.3 ± 12.1 versus 47.7 ± 12.6 years, P = 0.0007, RRs per 5 years increase 1.28 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.11–1.47]}, had more rejection episodes [0.26 ± 0.48 versus 0.12 ± 0.37, P = 0.0024, RRs per rejection episode 3.99 (95% CI 1.63–9.77)] and showed lower diastolic blood pressure readings [77 ± 10 mmHg versus 81 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.0362, RR per 5 mmHg decrease 1.14 (95% CI 1.04–1.49)].

Conclusions.

There is a high incidence of latent pre-diabetes among renal transplant recipients. Increasing age, rejection episodes and lower diastolic blood pressure proved to be associated with pre-diabetes. In contrast to post-transplant diabetes, tacrolimus use and HbA1-c levels were not prognostic of pre-diabetes.

Keywords: pre-diabetes; PTDM; risk factors; transplantation

Journal Article.  5549 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nephrology

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