Journal Article

Do Household Smoking Behaviors Constitute a Risk Factor for Hookah Use?

Hikmet Jamil, James Janisse, Dalia Elsouhag, Monty Fakhouri, Judith E. Arnetz and Bengt B. Arnetz

in Nicotine and Tobacco Research

Published on behalf of Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Volume 13, issue 5, pages 384-388
Published in print May 2011 | ISSN: 1462-2203
Published online January 2011 | e-ISSN: 1469-994X | DOI:
Do Household Smoking Behaviors Constitute a Risk Factor for Hookah Use?

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Much research has focused on the role played by families in cigarette smoking behavior. However, there is a lack of such research for hookah (waterpipe) smoking. This study focuses on the role of family members’ hookah smoking behaviors as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking.


Eight hundred and one adults in southeast Michigan responded to an anonymous self-administered survey regarding personal and family members’ hookah smoking behavior and perceptions of health risks related to hookah smoking. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to examine risk factors for hookah use.


The prevalence of current hookah smoking in the study population was 26%. The odds ratio for an individual to smoke hookah were 9.5 (95% CI = 2.37–38.47, p < .01), 8.6 (95% CI = 3.92–19.02, p < .001), and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.14–1.41, p < .05) if the father, mother, or sibling, respectively, smoked hookah at home. Male gender and younger age were also significantly associated with hookah smoking. Household hookah smoking behaviors were also significant risk factors among former hookah smokers compared with nonsmokers, but there were no significant risk factors when comparing former hookah smokers with current hookah smokers.


Having a father, mother, or sibling smoking hookah at home, male gender and younger age are significant risk factors for current hookah smoking.

Journal Article.  2528 words. 

Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology

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